Chemical Evaluation of Trace Elements in Bottled Water
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Sales of bottled water have been increasing around the globe.
This study was carried out to assess the trace elements present in bottled water.
For the study of bottled water, a total of 100 samples of different volumes (20 L and 1 L) were selected.
The physicochemical assessments were performed as per the methods described in the American Public Health Association, 2005.
Average values of pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, and turbidity were found to be 5.96 ± 0.54, 59.97 ± 58.65, 4.42 ± 3.69, and 0.408 ± 0.19, respectively.
Likewise, average values of total hardness (as CaCO3), calcium (as CaCO3), magnesium (as CaCO3), chlorine, iron, copper, cobalt, nickel, fluoride, sodium, and potassium were found to be 14.78 ± 8.43, 3.26 ± 1.55, 11.51 ± 7.92, 7.51 ± 3.21, 0.0032 ± 0.0017, 0.0091 ± 0.0116, 0.2520 ± 0.0127, 0.0080 ± 0.0082, 0.047 ± 0.0139, 12.65 ± 10.90, and 1.41 ± 2.00, respectively; meanwhile residual chlorine, zinc, silver, cadmium, and lead were below detection limit.
All the physicochemical characteristics of bottled water were found to be within International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) guidelines.
From the physicochemical aspects, the bottled water was found to be within the permissible value set by IBWA.
Pearson’s correlation revealed significant association between trace elements.
Levene’s test for equity of variances indicated that the majority (iron, copper, cobalt, nickel, fluoride, sodium, and potassium) of trace elements and seasons (monsoon and postmonsoon) demonstrated a statistically significant distribution (at 95% confidence interval).
At elevated concentrations, some elements can be harmful to human health and can cause morphological abnormalities, mutagenic effects, reduced growth, and increased morbidity and mortality in humans but it all depends upon a person’s metabolic factors, genetic factors, and ability to excrete trace elements through different routes, etc.
Water could have percolated down from the surface to the ground water and as such the difference in concentration of trace elements in monsoon and postmonsoon seasons could be noticeable.
American Psychological Association (APA)
Gautam, Bikram. 2020. Chemical Evaluation of Trace Elements in Bottled Water. Journal of Healthcare Engineering،Vol. 2020, no. 2020, pp.1-16.
Modern Language Association (MLA)
Gautam, Bikram. Chemical Evaluation of Trace Elements in Bottled Water. Journal of Healthcare Engineering No. 2020 (2020), pp.1-16.
American Medical Association (AMA)
Gautam, Bikram. Chemical Evaluation of Trace Elements in Bottled Water. Journal of Healthcare Engineering. 2020. Vol. 2020, no. 2020, pp.1-16.
Includes bibliographical references
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