Psychosocial impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers : a cross-sectional survey from Pakistan
Ali, Sayyid M.
Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Vol. 22, Issue 1 (28 Feb. 2022), pp.82-90, 9 p.
Sultan Qaboos University College of Medicine and Health Sciences
Country of Publication
No. of Pages
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the anxiety and depression symptoms in healthcare professionals in Pakistan as a result of the coronavirus pandemic.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2020 and included six different hospitals in Pakistan.
An English-language demographics questionnaire, a validated COVID-19 fear scale, depression scale PHQ-9 and anxiety scale GAD-7 were sent to doctors, nurses and paramedical staff via WhatsApp.
Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and Student’s t-test.
Results: A total of 400 participants were included in this study (response rate: 80.0%); 263 (65.8%) were doctors and 137 (34.3%) were nurses and paramedical staff.
Of the participants, 57.0% were less than 40 years old and 18.3% were aged above 50.
Most of the participants (n = 262; 65.5 %) experienced moderate levels of fear and 16.5% (n = 66) experienced a high level of fear.
Moreover, 19.5% feared death and 56.5% reported social media to be responsible for increasing their fears.
On the depression PHQ-9 and anxiety GAD-7 scales, 21.8% (n = 87) reported moderate to severe depression and anxiety symptoms.
A significant relationship was demonstrated between the depression level and age, education and profession (P <0.001 each).
Similarly, anxiety and depression scores were strongly related to the availability of personal protective equipment (P <0.001).
Conclusion: It was found that 21.8% of healthcare professionals are suffering from moderate to severe depression symptoms, 15.5% had moderate to severe anxiety, whereas 65.5% had moderate symptoms of fear.
The predictors are age, education level and co-morbidities.
These moderate to high levels of fear and anxiety and depression raise concerns about the psychological well-being of healthcare staff and should be addressed through different programmes.
American Psychological Association (APA)
Ali, Sayyid M.& Nausheen, Sidrah. 2022. Psychosocial impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers : a cross-sectional survey from Pakistan. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal،Vol. 22, no. 1, pp.82-90.
Modern Language Association (MLA)
Ali, Sayyid M.& Nausheen, Sidrah. Psychosocial impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers : a cross-sectional survey from Pakistan. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal Vol. 22, no. 1 (Feb. 2022), pp.82-90.
American Medical Association (AMA)
Ali, Sayyid M.& Nausheen, Sidrah. Psychosocial impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers : a cross-sectional survey from Pakistan. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal. 2022. Vol. 22, no. 1, pp.82-90.
Includes bibliographical references : p. 89-90
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