Chest X-ray findings and hyponatremia in COVID-19 pneumonia patients
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Background: The World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic in December 2019.
COVID-19 can affect most organs of the body but predominantly affects the lungs.
Chest infection is associated with hyponatremia primarily due to inappropriate ectopic secretion of antidiuretic hormone.
We conducted a six-month retrospective observational study to evaluate the relationship between chest X-ray (CXR) radiological findings and serum sodium levels.
Our secondary goal was to assess the relationship between CXR findings and patient outcomes.
Aim of the Study: To assess the relationship between the initial CXR findings, hyponatremia severity, and outcome in COVID-19 infected patients.
Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective review of CXR findings of COVID-19 patients aged > 18 years.
The patients were healthy and had no history of hyponatremia before COVID-19 infection.
All recruited patients were admitted to one of four hospitals in Qatar (Hazm Mebaireek General Hospital, Communicable Disease Center, and all affiliated quarantine centers managed under the Communicable Disease Centre, Mesaieed Hospital, and Ras Laffan Hospital) between March and June 2020.
We excluded patients with factors that contributed to hyponatremia.
Three score grades were established to describe the CXR findings.
Patients were divided into three groups by the principal researcher according to their serum sodium levels.
A radiologist evaluated the CXR findings with the patient and group information obscured.
The principal researcher collected the X-ray scores for analysis with the serum sodium levels.
We used SPSS for Windows, Version 15.0.
(SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and STATA Package Version 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) to analyze the data.
A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: A total of 414 CXR patients with COVID-19 were recruited; 275 patients had hyponatremia and 139 had normal sodium levels and were used as the control group.
Patients with normal serum sodium and hyponatremia were classified into three categories based on the CXR findings.
Grade 0 (95), Grade 1 (43), and Grade 2 (137) hyponatremic patients were reported.
The mean sodium levels were 133.6, 131.3, and 127.2 mmol/L for Grades 0, 1, and 2, respectively (p < 0.001).
More than 95% of the patients who developed hyponatremia were >30 years.
Moderate and severe hyponatremia was more prevalent in patients with Grade 1 or Grade 2 CXR findings and were >30 years.
Conclusion: Serum sodium levels in COVID-19 patients correlated well with the severity of the CXR findings observed at the early disease stage.
Furthermore, simple CXR scores can be used to identify COVID-19 patients at a higher risk of hyponatremia, length of hospital stay, medical care support type, and mortality.
American Psychological Association (APA)
Habas, al-Mukhtar& Said, Abd al-Salam Abu Ghrarah& Ramzi, Ahmad Fayd& Ghazwani, Hafiz& Fino, Areen& Abu Khattab, Muhammad A.…[et al.]. 2022. Chest X-ray findings and hyponatremia in COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Qatar Medical Journal،Vol. 2022, no. 3, pp.1-12.
Modern Language Association (MLA)
Habas, al-Mukhtar…[et al.]. Chest X-ray findings and hyponatremia in COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Qatar Medical Journal No. 3 (2022), pp.1-12.
American Medical Association (AMA)
Habas, al-Mukhtar& Said, Abd al-Salam Abu Ghrarah& Ramzi, Ahmad Fayd& Ghazwani, Hafiz& Fino, Areen& Abu Khattab, Muhammad A.…[et al.]. Chest X-ray findings and hyponatremia in COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Qatar Medical Journal. 2022. Vol. 2022, no. 3, pp.1-12.
Includes bibliographical references : p. 10-12
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