Histoplasmosis : an emerging or neglected disease in bangladesh ? a systematic review
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Histoplasmosis is uncommon in many parts of the world, including Bangladesh, where, in recent years, cases are increasingly reported.
We sought to describe the sociodemographic characteristics, clinical presentation, investigations, treatment, and outcome of histoplasmosis in Bangladesh.
We conducted a retrospective data review of published literature from 1962 to 2017, containing information on histoplasmosis in and/or from Bangladesh.
Unpublished, well-documented histoplasmosis cases were also included.
A total of 26 male patients aged 8–75 years, with a diagnosis of histoplasmosis were included; nine were farmers, seven had diabetes, one was a renal transplant recipient, and four had HIV/AIDS.
Fever (n = 20), weight loss (n = 17), anemia (n = 15), lymphadenopathy (n = 9), and hepatosplenomegaly (n = 7) were common.
Eleven patients had bilateral adrenal enlargement.
Diagnosis was confirmed by histo/cytopathology from skin (n = 1), oropharyngeal ulcers (n = 8), lymph nodes (n = 3), adrenal glands (n = 11), paravertebral soft tissue (n = 2), and bone marrow (n = 4).
Cultures of representative samples and antibodies were detected in three and two cases, respectively.
Twenty-two patients had disseminated histoplasmosis and four patients had localized oropharyngeal disease.
Nine patients were prescribed anti-tuberculosis drugs empirically before establishing the diagnosis of histoplasmosis.
Treatment consisted of amphotericin B and itraconazole.
Six patients died in hospital, 14 patients recovered with relapse in two cases, and the outcome of the other patients could not be ascertained.
Histoplasmosis is thought to be endemic in Bangladesh, but few cases are reported to date, which may be due to many asymptomatic, undiagnosed, misdiagnosed, or under-reported cases.
Histoplasmosis should be considered as a differential in appropriate clinical scenarios.
American Psychological Association (APA)
Abd al-Rahim, Muhammad& Shahana, Zaman& Amin, Muhammad Robed& Nazim al-Din, Khawaja& Chowdhury, MA Jalil. 2020. Histoplasmosis : an emerging or neglected disease in bangladesh ? a systematic review. Oman Medical Journal،Vol. 35, no. 1.
Modern Language Association (MLA)
Abd al-Rahim, Muhammad…[et al.]. Histoplasmosis : an emerging or neglected disease in bangladesh ? a systematic review. Oman Medical Journal Vol. 35, no. 1 (Jan. 2020).
American Medical Association (AMA)
Abd al-Rahim, Muhammad& Shahana, Zaman& Amin, Muhammad Robed& Nazim al-Din, Khawaja& Chowdhury, MA Jalil. Histoplasmosis : an emerging or neglected disease in bangladesh ? a systematic review. Oman Medical Journal. 2020. Vol. 35, no. 1.
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